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It is the only social and economic history of any part or period of Ecuador.

And it is the second study in any language on Ecuador to use archival material from Colombia and Peru as well. John Leddy Phelan, The Kinado. Phelan, however, is less concerned with colonial Quito than with bureaucratic politics in the Spanish empire. The above mentioned distinctions cast no glory upon me but are indicative of the indifference in the United States towards the smaller Latin American republics, the preoccupation of Ecuadorians with politics and personages, and the difficulty of doing research in that country even for a gringo with time and money.

A social and economic approach is employed out of preference and conviction although no great familiarity with its methodology is pretended. Although this history is based on eighteen months' research in thirteen public and four private depositories in Guayaquil, Cuenca, Quito, Lima and Bogotg, and on eight years of reading, it is preliminary in attempt, provisional in approach, and tentative in finding.

It is preliminary because I did not consult all the material available. It is provisional because I am still acquainting myself with the quantitative method.

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It is all too easy for the researcher to become disillusioned with the history of the coast as Huerta explains. El archivo de nuestra Iglesia Catedral ha desaparecido o poco mrenos, destruido por el fuego de los incendios, por incuria del tienpo, por descuido de los hombres, vicisitudes devastadoras que pudieron prevenirse; el Archivo de la Municipalidad y el de la Secretarla del Concejo Cantonal han probado tanbion amargas y tristes vicisitudes: no se puede, pues, seguir una l6gica continuidad, ni cronologica ni puramente narrativa en nuestra historia guayaquileia; a cada paso, cuando se intenta escribir sobre alglIn hecho, sobre alguna instituci6n colonial, por ejemplo, la continuidad documental que el investigador espera iluso encontrar, se ve interrumpida por extensas lagunas que la falta de documentos no permite llenar y toda esperanza queda defraudada.


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It merely requires perseverance to find the material, stamina to recover it, ability and sometimes special equipment to decipher it, and sufficient interest to withstand the indifference of most guayaquilesios to their own past. The latter is what really caused Huerta to despair and this author to withdraw at times. Out of the seventeenth months spent in Ecuador, only nine were passed in Santiago de Guayaquil, the rest in Cuenca and Quito. These leaves of absence from the heat, humidity, bichos two and six legged , and bustle of the port were beneficial to spirit and study.

I acquired a clearer perspective of the coast and considerable material on the demography of the rest of Ecuador, the so-called precursor of independence Eugenio Espejo, the late colonial commerce of the southern highlands, and a sizeable collection of 6cuatoriana, all of which in one way or another have served to make this a better dissertation, Hopefully, this study and those of Castillo, Huerta, and the handful of other competent guayaquile-io historians will enable someone someday to write a general history of the city and district of Guayaquil.

Dora Ie6n Borja, a guayaquile. A word as to mechanics. A command of Spanish has been assumed on the part of the reader. Titles viii of manuscripts and quotations are transcribed literally. Theequivalents of weights, measures and currencies are given in an appendix. Since a considerable amount of statistics are included in the text and tables, all figures in a series are written in Arabic symbols.

The essay on Archival Sources and Maps is complete in its own way; the essay on Published Sources is selective. Barrera, Historia do la literatura ecuatoriana 2d ed. The Population of Ecuador: 2.

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The Population of the City of Guayaquil: 6. The Population of the Province of 11anabi by Parishes and Partidos: 8. The Ethnic Composition of the District of Guayaquil: The lxnber of Negro Slaves in the Pr ovince of Yanabls Age-Sex Pyramid of the Partido of Yaguachis Age-Sex Pyramid of the Parish of lontecristi: Civil State in the District of Guayaquil by Province in and Average Annual Harvest of Cacao: Annual Exports of Cacao: See also the list of keyed demographic sources on pages CHA Cuadernos de historia y argueolopla, Guayaquil, ff.

Documentos Varios, a series in the ASM. Mdseo de Arte e Historia, Quito. Museo Historico, Quito, El Patriota de Guayaquil, and Primer reilstro autgntico nacional de la reDn6blica del Ecuador 2 vols. Representaciones, a series in the ASM.

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Only its outlines and occasional prominent features are known. Thus although the past and present of Ecuador have been likened to A Tale of Tgo Cities-San Francisco de Quito, the political capital, and Santiago de Guayaquil, the commercial center, there are no histories of either worthy of name. It will come as no surprise then that this is the first dissertation in history to be presented in the United States wholly on Ecuador, the first social and economic history on any period of the past of that republic albeit on only one of its six regions the contral-south coast , the first attempt at an "integral" history of the city and district of Guayaquil during the lateeighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries, the first monograph-length study in English on any aspect of the internal history of Ecuador, and the second work in any language to use archival material from Peru and Colombia as well as Ecuador.

John Ieddy Phelan, The Kingdom of Quito in the Seventeenth Centuy Madison, , the first 'In this last xvi respect and which may strike some as having also been in the penultimate, is in reality a study of colonial bureaucracy in the Spanish empire. Utilizing manuscript material frcm seventeen depositories in Guayaquil, Quito, Cuenca, Lima, and Bogota and rare contemporary publications, this dissertation traces the metamorphosis of Santiago de Guayaquil from a gran aldea into a bustling port during the late colonial and independence periods and of the eastern half of the district from sparsely settled river banks into the largest purveyor of cacao to the world by the mid-nineteenth century.

It is the thesis of the author that neither the'fibrescence of the city nor the agricultural revolution the parameters and chronology of which are tentatively established in the Guayas lowland and the southern litoral would have come about if more manpower had not appeared. Hence considerable attention is paid to demography.


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  • During the period under review, there was a demographic revolution apparently the only pre-twentieth century population explosion in Ecuador among the Indians and mestizos of the central literal and an influx of serranos from the poverty stricken highlands. It was largely these two groups who were responsible for the four-fold increase in the population of the city and district of Guayaquil betvmen and , who provided the labor responsible for the increase in the production of cacao, and who freed the montubios for the army of Antonio Jose da Sucre.

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    The latter in turn assured the independence of the coast which brought greater prosperity through open trade with foreign nations by liberating the highlands. Tuo further words. This dissertation is entitled "A Social and xvii Economic History" because political events, while not ignored, are given short shift to demographic, economic, and social coverage.

    And it is descriptive rather than analytical because not enough is known about concurrent developments elsewhere in Ecuador, neighboring New Granada or Peru to generalize. Enough said to indicate the scope and originality of what amounts to the initial presentation of a piece of basic research. Its extension was "80 leguas del N, al modiodla, desde el Mlorro do la punta do Santa Elena hasta las playas do Ojiba[rJ, y casi otras tantas de ancho desde ol puerto de Manta hasta el pueblo do Tumbes The canton of Portoviejo was formed from the parishes of Portoviejo, Pichota, and Picoaza; the canton of Jipijapa from the parishes of Jipijapa, Pajan, and Cayo formerly spelled Callo ; and ihe canton of Montecristi from the parishes of la Canoa, Chone, Mosca, Tosagua, Charapot6, and Montecristi.

    The cedula of July 7, not effective until the following year , detached the governorship of Guayaquil from Quito and Bogota and annexed it to the viceroyalty of Peru in administration, justice, war, and finance. I suspect, however, that the crown was also influenced by the need to strengthen the economy of Lina, weakened by the loss of Charcas to Buenos Aires upon the establishment of the viceroyalty of the Rio do la Plata in A number of scholars, North American and Ecuadorian, have maintained erroneously that the coast was subjected but militarily to Lima in as much as a later decree of November 9, according to themexpressly forbade the viceroy of Peru to meddle in the other branches of government.

    In the words of the crown, this "royal resolution could not be communicated [to America] as a result of the forthcoming occupation of Madrid by the French," so slowly did the wheels of bureaucracy turn.

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    Virrey de Lima" in early , and official notification later that year. Eo did not, for example, order the transfer of control over the mails of Guayaquil from Quito to Lima until mid The second revolution of Quito in marked the watershed between these two periods. That rebellion prompted the viceroy of Peru to make binding in all branches of government the aggregation decreed on July 7, There can be no doubt that the governorship of Guayaquil was subjected almost immediately to the viceroyalty of Peru in administration, war, and finance.

    The effective date of transference. And the governors of Guayaquil sought instruction 6 and took orders from the viceroys of Peru during those years, not from the presidents of Quitonor the viceroys of New Granada. In the meantime, the Consulados de Comercio of Cartagena and Lima renewed their earlier dispute over control of the trade of the port of Guayaquil.

    The merchants of the coast had been governed by the Consulado de Comercio de Lima until That year the croan erected in Cartagena a new consulate whose authority it stipulated to include the entire viceroyalty and captaincy general of the New Kingdom of Granada, excluding the provinces of Quito [the governorship of Eseraldas and the corregimientos of Tharra, Otavalo, Quito, Latacunga, Riobamba, and Chimbo] and Popayin where in virtue of the royal decrees of February 19, , and June 11, , there are established courts of commerce with special ordinances for their government, which tribunals I wish for the moment to continue functioninE.

    To avwomiodate litigants the Consulado de Comercio de Cartagena was authorized to appoint deputies "in the ports and places of most commerce. Oartin de Icaza continued to act as deputy of commerce for Lima through early when he was replaced by Manuel Liona at the request of Icaza. They collected for Consulate of Lima averla for , , , , and the first 10 months of Both Cartagena and Lima appointed new deputies for Guayaquil. In as much as the wording of the cedula of was sufficiently vague so that both consulates could claim the coast as within their domain, the former still and the latter again, Bartolomn de Cucalhn y Villamayor, governor of 7 Guayaquil and a partisan of the viceroy of Peru, appealed to Lima for instructions.

    On February 10, , His Majesty declared that the annexation decreed three yoars earlier was absolute, and the commerce of Guayaquil was now dependent upon the Consulado do Lima. Either way, dependency upon Lina was beneficial to Guayaquil.


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    • The coast escaped the decade of strife which decimated the populations and disrupted the economies of the rebellious colonies: when Guayaquil did declare its independence from Spain on October 9, , it was as a populous, prosperous province, sure of success. Ironically, the coast obtained its emancipation only to turn about and debate whether or not it was more convenient to resubmit to the now independent Lima or Bogot4 or to go its separate way.

      In reality, this polemic was academic as the coast could not maintain its independence in the midst of two much more powerful and populous and expansionist neighbors. Degradation came on July 13, , when Sim6n Bolivar made short shift of such indecision, forceably incorporating the Free Province into Gran Colombia. The guayaquileidos never forgave him that.

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      Bolivar's highhandedness of was one of the reasons they willingly joined with Juan Jose Flores, for whom they bore even less love, in breaking free from the chimeric creation of the Liberator in to establish with Quito and Cuenca the State of Ecuador in Colombia. Until the coast formed part of the diocese of Quito. Seventeen years earlier the crown had decided to establish a new bishopric in Ecu. That decision took ten years to reach as both cities lobbied for the distinction and the ecclesiastical chapter of Quito opposed the division, fearful of a d-iinution in revenue.

      In 9 Charles III finally chose Cuenca as the seat of the new episcopate which was to include the corregimientos of Cuenca and Loja and the governorship of Guayaquil. T he economy of the southern highlands was sound, its populace devout, and climate benign.

      Between and , the cuencanos imported 1,, pesos 2 reals worth of goods and foodstuffs. The port grew from less than 2, to at least 15, inhabitants, from one ward to five, from one parish to three during the eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries. Periodic fires and pirate attacks--especially that of in which the port was pillaged and razed--prompted the majority of vecinos to change sites in the late-seventeenth century. Thus were born the two barrios of ciudad vie ja and ciudad nueva, separated by the five estuaries of lizaro, Yorillo, Campos, Junco, and Villamar, and linked by a wooden bridge varas long and 2 wide, built in The Estero Salado, a former channel of the Guayas, which comes up behind the city, was just that, a long narrow inlet of the Gulf of Guayaquil.

      The old city soon became a neighborhood of artisans, laborers, fishermen, peddlers, and servants. The Bajo was a motley assortment of cane and thatch huts which sprang up along the bridge linking ciudad nueva and ciudad vieja. In the crown considered establishing a Royal Shipyard of the South Sea at Guayaquil, and the cabildo reserved the land around the new shipyard for its construction. The nascent barrio of the Astillero consisted of 62 houses and 3 streets, 2 parallel to the river which came to be known as del Astillero and San Alejo Vargas and Eloy Alfaro , and the third running west towards the savanna.

      The upper stories have long balconies about four or five feet wide, with canvas curtains, which are very useful, because they form an agreeable shade against the scorching rays of the sun; and when a little breeze springs up, one end of the roller is passed between the ballustrades of the varanda, and the other end projects outward, so that the breeze is thus caught, and a current of air is guided into the apartments of the house, which at any tire is very desirable.

      There are no buildings in Guayaquil that particularly attract the attention of a traveller, either by their size or beauty; but however the generality of the houses are large, commodious, and have a very good appearance, particularly those along the Malocon, which faces the river. All have one comnon entrance-door and staircases many of these Noah's arks contain one hundred souls and the majority far more; and.

      Cne way to study this development is through maps. Ciudad nueva was laid out in the classical grid, seven blocks wide along the river and five deep towards the savanna. None of the streets were paved or drained. Its aspect may be appreciated in the plan of which Pizarro apparently copied from a map drawn a few years earlier by Francisco de Requena. Three wooden bridges across tho Estoro do Carri6n and the vara bridge, all in need of constant repair, linked the several wards. By it was 15 fourteen wide and at least seven deep.

      Avenida Rocafuerte , later known as Cale Nueva upon being continued to ciudad vie ja by Governor Juan! Sucre , and del Fango Crist6bal Co0n. To the right of the palace of the governor was the residence of Dr. Figuerola, to the left that of reridor Vicente de? In and , Pizarro with the financial cooperation of the mercantile element drained and filled the lot between the Aduana and the Sala do Armas, raised a stone wharf the beginnings of the Wilec n , and constructed twenty-nine stalls in front of the customs house and six more facing the river to the right of the new dock.

      He opened 16 and paved a street from the Calle Real del Coercio to the mercado and surrounding buildings, and converted the warehouse for arms into a fort as part of his program to improve the defenses of the city.